Saint Tugdual and Saint Tudy are Armorican saints (n01) of Ve or VIe century.
A Life (or Vita) is a hagiographic manuscript (n02) telling the life and the history of one saint. This life is often directed according to objectives of hagiographal, in particular for to affirm the political or territorial claims of an abbey. Moreover, there exists often in a life of multiple loans to other lives or others manuscrits.
A first hagiographic controversy C1 door on equivalence between Saint Tugdual (n03) and Saint Tudy (n04). Indeed, these two saints were, according to cases, either confused or distinguished. It was considered a long time that Saint Tugdual was a saint former to saint Tudy. Various graphies of their names, associated often with one close phonetics, supported an ambiguity in the various manuscripts. Geographical localizations of these saints, often in a melting pot in the same place, have therefore contributed to sow the doubt. B. Tanguy [b_tang01] seems to have solved the controversy C1 in 1986 by establishing the relation " Pabu Tugdual alias Tudi".
One second controversy C2 relates to equivalence between the Tugdual of Cornwall (Cornouaille in Brittany in France, be careful french one's) and the Tugdual of Tréguier (Léon in Brittany in France). Arthur de la Borderie, a french historian, in sound comment on the text of the three oldest Lives (Vitae) of saint Tugdual, indicates that "the Tudual of the Life of saint Gwennolé is not the saint Tudual of Tréguer" [b_bord01][b_tang01 p.118]. The Life of the Saint Tugdual of Tréguier (Tudual) was written by its disciple Louénan [b_tang01 p.118]. According to B Tanguy, the argumentation of La Borderie holds in three keys points:
- the saint Tugdual of Tréguier arrives in the Armorican peninsula (French Brittany), not as a simple monk like his homonym of Cornwall, but like abbot, head of a many monastic family,
- the saint Tugdual of Tréguier did not have any trade with Cornwall, its activity having exclusively related to Domnonée (old part of Brittany in France, be careful french one's), - the miracle of fire [b_bord04] was not nowhere charged to the Tugdual of Tréguier (Tutgual) but could be allotted to the Tugdual of Cornwall (Tudi) [b_tang01 p.118].
Sorry for so complex history, even for french people ...
The Tugdual of Cornwall is described as the fourth column of Cornwall; three other columns being Gradlon, Corentin, Gwennolé [b_tang01 p.118]. The Tugdual of Cornwall is given like former to Gradlon, Corentin, Gwennolé [b_tang01 p.118]. On this subject, others objections were formulated by A. de la Borderie [b_bord02] [b_bord03] in response in articles of other historians [b_rame01] [b_juba01] [b_tang01 p.118].
It seems proven that the denomination "pabu" designates a father-founder of a place devoted. This old designation finds in the Irish saints founders of communities in Iceland [b_cres01]. It is thus of the seven saints of Tro-Breizh (n17), of which Saint Tugdual. Saint Tugdual is indeed often named "Pabu-Tugdual" [b_albe01]. This name "pabu" associated in the name of a saint defines a significant anteriority thus (n18) and could be an argument of the anteriority of Saint Tugdual on Saint Tudy (if we distinguish them).
In theory, the principle of precaution relating to the two controversies C1 and C2 would like that:
- information relating to Saint Tudy and Saint Tugdual is always distinguished,
- no reference to Saint Tugdual of Tréguier is carried out if one speaks about Saint Tugdual of Cornwall,
- no reference to Saint Tugdual of Cornwall is not carried out if one speaks about Saint Tugdual of Tréguier.
In practice, in the dubious and ambiguous cases, we will specify of which saint we speak about.
See page bibliography.
(n01) Armorica is the old name of current Brittany in France.
(n02) the hagiography is the science which treats in particular of biography of the saints.
(n03) the worship of Saint Tugdual is in particular at Tréguier and at Combrit in Finistère in France.
(n04) the worship of Saint Tudy is in particular at Loctudy in Finistère, at Belle-Ile island in Morbihan in France, at St Tudy in Cornwalls in Britain (Cornouailles anglaise).
(n17) Saint-pol. Aurélien, Saint Corentin, Saint Patern, Saint-Samson, Saint-Malo, Saint-Brieuc, Saint Tugdual
(n18) of the same order that the difference between the terms "plou " and "loc".
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