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Saint Tugdual

Tugdual (500-564) was born in Wales. Its family is undoubtedly originating in the Island of Man. " It is high in the purest tradition monastic. After having had several visions which encourage it to go in small Brittany, it unloads on the continent towards 535 with other monks. It melts initially in the area of Conquet (n01) a first monastery then a second with Landreger (Tréguier). In Brittany, it accumulates them miracles near the deaf persons, of the blind men and the paralytic ones. It extinguishes fires, ressucite of drowned. It is named bishop of Tréguier. With his death, one will say of him that if it is not God the Father, it is that he did not want it." [b_cuig01] [b_arsei01]

The various graphies of the name of Saint Tugdual are (without being exhaustive): Tugdual (n09), Tudgual (n10), Tutgual (n11), Tudual (n12), Tuduali, Thudetus (n13), Tudwal, Tual, Oual (n14).

Dom Plaine [b_plai01] indicates that there are 3 Lives (Vitae) of Saint Tugdual.
"the first life of saint Tudual or Tugal had a better fate [than that of saint Jacut]. Initially we know in a positive way that it emanates from an immediate disciple of the saint, then one fragment of this document was preserved to us, and even very recently [1891] has been just published (n05). This publication is due to Mr. Anatole de Barthélemy, but that which writes these lines had there better share, as well in the discovery of this fragment as in the observation of its source. (...) In July 1876, by traversing the Collectanea of Duchesne (n06), I met a small life anonymous of the saint in question, which appeared all the more worthy to me of interest that it breathed a rare perfume of antiquity, and which no hagiographal, to my knowledge, had not made mention of it. However, after to have taken some carefully copy, I realized little after that the third hiographe of the same saint (anonymous trécorois [from Tréguier] of the eleventh century) had inserted one from there textual passage in its characteristic written and that it gave a proper name to that which I took for an anonymity. Wanting, indeed, to establish the falseness of the opinion, which allotted to saint Tudual an Irish origin, this author calls in holy testimony Loévan disciple of the saint, and expresses itself in these terms: << Loévan, disciple of the saint, wrote the life of its Master and says to us that his/her named mother Pompée was sister of Riwal, count of Breton, and it first of them, which {, according to him, } had crossed the sea {in order to establish in Domnonée} (n07). Tudual followed later this example with its disciples (n08) >>. the authen[ti]city of the fragment of life, about which it all is here, was thus noted in the most formal way. Which damage only, which instead of a simple fragment, one did not transmit to us the text integral of a document of this value. But, just as it is, this fragment always belongs to sixth century, and contains one of the extremely rare monuments of the Armorican literature tonic on this date. The style is elegant and correct besides, besides some archaisms that one notices there and who give him to some extent a new price." The second life of saint Tugdual was carried out by "an anonymity [which] resumed work [of saint Loévan] in underpinning, and enjoyed to draw certain developments from them that its precursor had neglected.

Albert Le Grand [b_albe01] indicates that Saint Tugdual (Tugduval) is called in Breton Sant Pabu or Papu [b_albe01]. He was called also Pabu (Cognomisu Pabu) [b_saf03 p.94]. The called upon reason that he was Pape of Rome, is named Leo V Britigena [Leon Breton] [b_albe01] [b_saf03 p.91]. There is indeed a great number of churches and vaults dedicated to Saint Tugdual under the name of Papu [Pabu], like Land-Pabu, Tré-Pabu, Loc-Pabu, Ker-Pabu, Mouster-Pabu [b_albe01]). There existed with the church of Saint Andre in Land-Treguer be-saying them weapons of Saint Tugdual (Tuduval), of azure to the oak of gold, and the first panel the stamped escutcheon of a tiara papal, surmontée of an imperial order, and with the second panel the escutcheon with the same weapons, crossed two keys of azure in cross. Useless to say that these armorial bearings cannot be those of Saint Tugdual, the blazon not going up beyond the Crusades [b_albe01].
Saint Tugdual (Tugduval) was native of the United Kingdom. The History of its life does not name his father but his mother, who was lady of large house, sister of Rivallon Murmaczon, which, having left the United Kingdom, lived in Low Brittany and gave origin to the kings and kingdom Dononéen (n02): it was called Pompaea; they [the Breton ones] call it commonly holy Copaja, and [it] is buried with the Chorus of the parish of Land-Coat, close [of] there Rock-Derien.
In Great Britain, after a solid instruction, Saint Tugdual withdrew itself in a monastery, monk was accepted and replaced the abbot of his monastery which had just died. However, one angel appeared one night to him and says to him: "Tugdual (Tugduval) God orders you to leave there the United Kingdom, your fatherland, and to hastily transport you in small Brittany.". It expressed its visions with all its monks. 72 of between-them accompanied, in particular Saint Ruelin, Saint Guevroc, Saint Goneri, Saint Loëvan, Saint Briac. His Pompaea mother, who had taken the dress of religion after the death of his husband, and his sister, Sainte Soeve (n03) and a widow, named Malhelew, accompanied it. The saints found a ship all equipped which awaited them. They were returned quickly on the coast of Leon and reflect foot in the island of Kermorvan, in front of Conquet, in the parish of Plou-Moguer (n04). Saint Tugdual went in the town of Occismor, capital of Leon, maintaining Saint-Paul-of-Leon, in order to ask to the lord of Leon a place to build a small monastery there. Having achieved a miracle on lame, the lord granted to him a ground in a small valley, with a quarter of place of Conquet, now named Tré-Pabu, and where formerly drew up the monastery of Land-Pabu. This monastery being completed, Saint Tugdual undertook a tower of the province [Brittany], achieving many miracles in all the crossed cities. Its re-elected allowed him to build several monasteries which they populated of monk of its monastery of Land-Pabu which was the principal base of its Kind. Its disciple and travelling companion LoČvan writes "that there was hardly parish, since low Leon until the other end of the province, where there was not some monastery or, at least, some old people's home of its Kind." [b_albe01].

Largillière [b_larg01] states clearly that the saint Tugdual cornouaillais (breton Cornwall) preceded the time of saint Tudy, saint Corentin, saint Guénolé and Gradlon. Indeed, "worms [of the vita metrica] [b_larg02] are formal for saying that Tudual had preceded the time of saint Corentin, saint Guénolé and king Gradlon" [b_larg_01 p.5]. The text of the vita metrica [or vita Winwaloei] of Saint Guénolé [b_bord04] "proves that the Cornouaillais [breton Cornwall people] had traditions on saint Tudual since they allot a miracle to him [the miracle of fire], that the lives trécorroises [from Tréguier] of this saint are unaware of. The worship of saint Tudual exist in Cornouaille [breton Cornwall], it is old there since one has Landudal, old trève of Briec, and [it] vault of Lampabu in Plouhinec.
Doubtless, this saint extended his apostolate to all Brittany. Tréguier has had more particularly its memory. One has just seen that Cornouaille [breton Cornwall] had local legends on this saint, the vita Brioci, probably written in XIth century, gives one third version in which saint Tudual is only one simple nephew of saint Brieuc, dilectissimo nepoti suo. (if one wanted to explain by the history this passage of the vita Brioci, one would seek a memory of an attempt of the bishop of Saint-Brieuc to exert its supremacy on bishop of Tréguier (...))
- the vita metrica was not mistaken while placing saint Tudual [Tutgualus] well before saint Guénolé and saint Tudy; the worship of saint Tudual goes up at the time of the place names in Plou-, Lan-, Tré;- the worship of saint Tudy is quite posterior time of Loc- [see also b_larg04]" [b_larg01 p.5 note 1].
With regard to the text of the vita Chorentini copied by Of Paz, Largillière corrects several errors of the text presented by Mrs. Fawtier: the real text of the manuscript indicates in particular "Tudgual" instead of "Tugdual", "the two forms are very different times, and Tudgual of the ms forms it is much older." [b_larg01 p.15].

According to the life of Saint Brieuc (vita Brioci), Pabu-Tugdual is the nephew of Saint Brieuc. Saint Brieuc is a monk born in Wales at the end of VIth century. He would have unloaded with the "port d"Ac'h", undoubtedly the Aber-Vrac'h with 168 companions, would have founded a monastery on the edges of Jaudy, that of Tréguier, which it would have then entrusted to its Pabu-Tugdual nephew, then a second on banks of Gouët, where he would have died. If one makes the assumption "Pabu Tugdual alias Tudi", it is perhaps not a chance if the parish close to Plonivel, of which it owner is Saint Brieuc, is that of Loctudy, whose owner is Saint Tudy [b_plon01]). One such relation between the two parishes is possible if one notes the promiscuity of Kerdual (n15) in Loctudy and of Larvor in Loctudy but in the past in Plonivel.

Dom Lobineau [b_lobi01 p. 178] note that in the English litanies of VIIth century, the name of saint Tugdual is writing Tut-Wall : word made up of two Breton words: Tut, people and Wall, Welsh [b_saf03 p.95].

In opposition to Largillière , B. Tanguy establishes the relation "Pabu Tugdual alias Tudi" [b_tang01]. B Tanguy is opposed in this point to Borderie and Larguilläre. Its argumentation in favour of the equality between Tugdual and Tudy rests in particular on the following points:
- "Tudi does not have clean Life (Vita)." [b_tang01 p. 119-121], contrary to Saint Tugdual who have three Lifes (Vitae).
- "there is (...) no impossibility to regard Tudi as a hypocoristic form (n_van02) of Tutgual [Tugdual]" [b_tang01 p. 121]
- the simultaneous presence in the minihi of the abbey of Locmaria (Quimper) of the stone Maen Tudi and of the fountain Pabu. [b_tang01 p. 123]
- the presence of the worship of Tugdual with Combrit (Finistère), whose Ile-Tudy was a trève.
- "At Loctudy, even if the holder of the vault of Saint-Oual can lend to discussion, one notes the presence of the villages of Pontual, in the past Botual, and of Kerdual, writing Kertugdoal in XVth century." [b_tang01, p. 120]

The " miracle of fire " [b_bord04] [b_bord05] is allotted to the Saint Tugdual cornouaillais (Tutgual) alias Tudi [b_tang01]: "And already however had preceded these three characters [Gradlon, Corentin, Guénolé] a saint of exception of the name of Tutgual, monk illustrates by his merits, worthy of to be used as example with a great number: having which that it was taken in its centre of fire in its clothing, the flame saved it, its body moistening unlike one soft dew. But then already it shared with the sky the life of happy when it country had as a rampart these three columns [Gradlon, Corentin, Guénolé] which it supported. It was however the fourth, because one cannot count it for less, when, alive with Christ, it continues to live where its body had lived." [b_bord05]
This miracle does not appear in the life of the Saint Tugdual trégorrois.

Bibliography :
See page bibliography.

Notes :
(n01) It is here about the place where Saint Tugdual [rather the saint Tugdual trégorrois] accosted, known as Pabu, on its arrival in Armorique at the 6th century: the fine sand split of PorsPabu, close to the Kermorvan point, opposite Conquet, close to Brest (Finistère).
(n02) M. de la Borderie looks at these indications like exact: Riwal, head of a group very considerable of emigrants, would have indeed been first king of Domnonée and would have had as a sister the mother of saint Tugdual. It is under the reign of Déroch, wire of this prince (520-535), that Saint Tugdual approaches in Armorique; its relationship with the sovereign of the country had to contribute to its influence and to encourage its activity.
(n03) in Breton Santez Seo, or Secou or Seva.
(n04) then called Plou-Macoer.
(n05) See t. 44 of Mémoires des Antiquaires [Antics] de France [, 1891].
(n06) These Collectanea are preserved at Biblioth. Nationale de Paris, and do not form not less than 120 or 130 vol. in folio; the life of Saint-Tugdual is in T 85.
(n07) {...} I [Dom Plaine] adds these words because, it is proven only the domnonéen establishment maybe in fact the first [establishment] Breton in the order of the times.
(n08) Loevanus discipulus sancti Tutguali (sic) (which ejus vita conscripsit), sic narrat: Mater ejus pompeia nominates soror erat Riwali, comitis Britonum, primi will citra pond venientis, quem Tutgualus cum am discipulis secutus is. (Even biblioth. manuscr. lat. 5279 fol. 129.)
(n09) Tugdual is the actual form.
(n10) Tanguy B. "Tugdual results from a métathèse starting from Tudgual."
(n11) Life of saint Gwennolé (Vita Winwaloei) by the Wrdisten monk.
(n12) Vita IIa Tuduali
(n13) Vita IIa Maudeti
(n14) Vita Ia Maudeti
(n15)" Kerdual, village of Loctudy, noted Kertugdoal in XVth century." [b_tang05]

In knowing more:
We advise the very complete article which refers on the subject Tugdual and Tudy:
TANGUY, B., Hagionomastique et histoire : Pabu Tugdual alias Tudi et les origines du diocèse de Cornouaille, Bulletin de la Société Archéologique du Finistère, p. 117-142, 1986.

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